Today's ARIN estimated depletion date:

Archive for June, 2009

Embarq /13


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Embarq recently got or about half a million IPv4 addresses assigned to them by ARIN. This is the first allocation from the 184/8 block. ARIN got the block from IANA in December last year. This allocation adds to Embarq’s existing pool of addresses of around 1.5 million IPv4 address. Embarq also have the IPv6 network 2607:F2A0::/32 allocated to them.

Upgrade your infrastructure


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There are 4 major shifts in how bits and bytes are handled in computers and networks. Coincidentally all seem to happen within the same timeframe (+- 1 year). You will in other words have a busy couple of years once we get out of this recession.

16 to 32 bits – AS number

We are running out of AS numbers that are being used in routing protocols, mainly between ISPs. The AS numbers are expected to run out by August of 2011

32 bits to 64 bits – Processors and operating systems

64-bit processors have been around for a while. We all remember our excitement when we opened our new Nintendo 64 game console. At that time the gaming experience assumed to be proportional to the number of bits of the instructions the processor could handle. This was late in last millennium. However, it is first now, with the release of Windows 2008 R2 that we will see a broad adoption of the technology in mainstream IT. Windows 2008 R2 will be 64 bits only. The 32 bit servers you just ordered from Dell will do you no good. You need to look for servers with new processor from AMD or Intel such as Pentium 4, Xeon, Itanium, Athlon 64 or Core i7.

General availability of Windows 2008 R2 will be in October 2009. To find out more about Windows 2008 see

32 bits to 128 bits – Internet Protocol

As you know, we are running out of IPv4 addresses. The IANA pool will be depleted in November 2010.
Click on the report tab above for more info.

512 bytes – 4096 bytes – DNS packet sizes
New technologies such as IPv6 and DNSSEC resulted in larger DNS packets. There was unfortunately an upper limit of 512 bytes in the DNS responses a server could send. The new standard EDNS0 fixes this. This upgrade wasn’t supposed to break anything. The idea was that the client could flag if they supported the new standard and the server could respond accordingly. However, Studies have shown that several firewalls and other products can’t handle DNS packet bigger than 512. They simply think that they are wrong and throw them away. So it is not enough to just upgrade your clients and servers, you must make some changes to you infrastructure as well.

See list of routers/firewalls that failed to forward EDNS0 packets correctly at

There is no fixed cut off date on this problem, but you need to be compliant as the new technologies get deployed, otherwise you will not be able to take advantage of them.

Have fun upgrading! /S

Ripe in a bad spot


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RIPE NCC is not allocating IPv4 addresses in the pace that I was anticipating. This has an interesting effect on the number of IPv4 addresses RIPE will have in their pool when the IANA pool gets depleted. If they continue to allocate in this low pace they will push their future allocations to IANA later and later. Soon they might overtake the questionable honor of being the last RIR to request an allocation from IANA. As we have an odd number of blocks in the IANA pool, the last allocations from IANA will only be 1 x /8. This will lower their pool at IANA depletion date and will in turn make RIPE the first region to run out of IPv4 addresses.

Furthermore, RIPE continues to allocate space from the 188/8 block. This block is in the various pool and was expected by everybody to be used by RIPE after the IANA pool gets depleted. The effect of the fact that they allocate from 188/8 is that RIPE will get depleted even earlier.

Consider this example. You are going on a hike with 4 friends and everybody gets a candy bar before they leave. An all you can eat buffet will be served the second day. After that the hikers will not get any more food until they reach the goal, three days away. When would you eat your candy bar? RIPE is eating their right now (on day one).